Description: Geodetic control provides a common reference system for establishing the coordinate positions of all geographic data to support land information compatibility. It also provides the means for tying all geographic features to common, nationally used horizontal and vertical coordinate systems. Geodetic control information plays a crucial role in developing all framework data and users' applications data, because it provides the spatial reference source to register all other spatial data. In addition, geodetic control information may be used to plan surveys, assess data quality, plan data collection and conversion, fit new areas of data into existing coverages, and assist in the maintenance of a variety of components identified in this guide.
Work is progressing on this component. This Task Force will consist of the review team for previous efforts as well as other interested individuals.
Objective: The Task Force will review existing geodetic control/survey monumentation guidelines and standards for Ohio and make suggestions and recommendations to the OGRIP Forum and Council.
Initial Efforts: The Task force will review and comment on:
- OGRIP's Geodetic Control Program Plan
- County Engineers Association of Ohio (CEAO)'s Surveying and Geodetic Control Guidelines & Recommendations for Local Geographic & Land Information Systems (currently under revision)
- ODOT's Proposal for Creation of a Statewide Coordinate Zone for the State of Ohio
- Inventory of state and countywide activities (programs, maintenance, etc.)
This Task Force will be expected to make recommendations to the OGRIP Forum and Council regarding OGRIP's endorsement of the above initiatives.
Long-term Efforts: The Task Force will assist in the implementation of the Geodetic Control Program Plan.
Imagery/Digital Orthophotography and Digital Elevation Models
Description: Orthoimagery provides a useful tool for a variety of applications. Because many land features can be seen on an orthoimage, it can serve as a backdrop for visual reference purposes, saving the expense of creating vector files of features that are needed only for reference. Orthoimagery can be used to compile vector themes photogrammetrically. Previous work has been accomplished on this component.
Currently, Ohio has complete USGS 30-meter digital elevation model (DEMs) coverage. There are a few areas with USGS 10-meter postings. Ohio should begin to research the completion of 10-meter DEM coverage or better. There has been significant advancement in the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to support the development of higher accuracy DEMs in state and local government.
Objective: This Task Force will review the numerous sources and approaches for achieving a statewide program for high-resolution digital orthophoto imagery and digital elevation creation.
Initial Efforts: This Task Force will:
- Review OGRIP's 1997 Ohio Digital Orthophotography Project Study. Updating of this document should be strongly considered.
- Provide cursory research on satellite imagery as well as the impact digital cameras. This research should focus on the current and potential uses of the imagery. This would include the applications supported, advantages and disadvantages of each technology, suggested coupling of technology with associated resolutions and spatial accuracy to support applications.
- Inventory of countywide activities and deliverables (resolutions, update cycles, etc.)
- Review cost effective approaches to digital elevation model development.
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program plan for Ohio to take advantage of the latest technology to support the periodic capture of high-resolution statewide imagery and the creation of a series of DEMs for use in Ohio.
Description: The framework's transportation data include the following major common features of transportation networks and facilities:
- Roads - centerlines, feature identification code (using linear referencing systems where available), functional class, name (including route numbers), and street address ranges
- Trails - centerlines, feature identification code (using linear referencing systems where available), name and type
- Railroads - centerlines, feature identification code (using linear referencing systems where available), and type
- Waterways - centerlines, feature identification code (using linear referencing systems where available), and name
- Airports and ports - feature identification code and name
- Bridges and tunnels - feature identification codes and name.
Transportation information is used in many applications. Some use it only for reference purposes, as an element of base mapping, while many others use it to attach other types of information, such as address-related information or street characteristics. Transportation features and related data are important elements of many planning applications. Geocoding applications utilize road and related address data for uses ranging from marketing analysis to site identification. Routing applications use street network data for operations such as vehicle dispatch and fleet management. The street centerline layer will serve as the backbone for the future development and incorporation of additional Framework Layers and provide mechanisms for acquiring and integrating spatial data created and maintained by various Local, State, and Federal agencies into the NSDI.
Objective: This Task Force will review the numerous approaches to the development of a spatially accurate street centerline for Ohio that supports routing and potentially Enhanced 911 initiatives in Ohio.
Initial Efforts: This Task Force will:
- Determine the status and completeness of address ranges for Ohio
- Inventory of street centerline development at the county level
- Determine approaches to the maintenance and updating of streets and address ranges
- Determine impact of spatially accurate centerlines on the Cultural Boundaries layer
- Identify uniform guidelines and standards for review and adoption for state and local governments
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program plan for Ohio to ensure access to a maintained, current and complete spatially accurate statewide transportation network (centerline) that includes updated and validated address ranges.
Hydrography (Lakes, Rivers, Streams, Creeks)
Description: Framework hydrography data include surface water features such as lakes and ponds, streams and rivers, canals, and shorelines. Each of these features has the attributes of a name and feature identification code. Centerlines and polygons encode the positions of these features. For feature identification code, many federal and state agencies use the Reach scheme developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Many hydrography data users need complete information about the connectivity of the hydrography network and the direction in which the water flows encoded in the data. To meet these needs, additional elements representing the flow of water and connections between features may be included in framework data.
Hydrography is important to many applications. As with other data themes, many users need hydrographic features as a reference for base map data. Other applications, particularly environmentally oriented analyses, need the information for analysis and modeling of water supply, pollution, flood hazard, wildlife, development, and land suitability. Existing activities are currently taking place through the 24K National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and other efforts with USGS, NRCS, OEPA and ODOT.
Objective: This Task Force will review the NHD initiative and its impact on existing state and local activities.
Initial Efforts: This Task Force will:
- Discuss existing efforts and future plans for the NHD (including maintenance and update procedures)
- Identify other data sets and sources for potential integration .
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program plan for Ohio to ensure data sharing regarding water related information across jurisdictional boundaries
Description: Cadastral information refers to property interests. Cadastral data represents the geographic extent of the past, current, and future rights and interests in real property. The spatial information necessary to describe the geographic extent and the rights and interest includes surveys, legal description reference systems, and parcel-by-parcel descriptions.
Because parcels play an important role in many public and private sector activities, and parcel information is a basic ingredient of many applications, there is interest in providing multiple levels of cadastral data. These levels would be based on available data and customer requirements. The framework provides a means to link existing parcel data into the larger cadastral network.
Objective: This Task Force will review the numerous approaches currently in place to support cadastral information for achieving a statewide program. The resulting approach will take into account the disparate levels of automation and technical requirements across the state.
Initial Efforts: This Task Force will begin with a review of the Eastern Cadastral Committee's cord data standards and provide comments, guidance on Ohio's requirements. This Task Force will collaboratively develop a state profile concerning cadastral information. The profile will include:
- State's existing role/Local government's existing role
- Responsible organizations and/or offices
- General parcel database and mapping status in the state
- Status of parcel centroid and or parcel outline collection
- Status of maintenance and currency
- General assessment and/or appraisal information status in the state
- Status of automation and linkage to parcel information data
- Status of Computer Aided Mass Appraisal (CAMA) programs
- General deed recording automation (document imaging and indexing) status in the state
- Status of automation
- Suggested Future Role(s) and Needs
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program plan for Ohio to ensure data and information sharing of current and maintained parcel ownership records across county and other jurisdictional boundaries.
Description: The framework includes the geographic areas of units of government and cultural boundaries. Governmental unit boundaries are used for a wide variety of applications. Some need the boundaries only for information and orientation; others require the polygons to determine inclusion related to a number of other features. Business GIS is a very active field that uses these boundaries for statistical analysis and decision making.
Objective: This Task Force will identify cultural boundaries of significance to the majority of spatial data users and review the numerous sources and completeness for achieving a statewide program for compiling and accessing cultural boundaries.
- Identify and review existing statewide sources for cultural boundaries
- Review other existing sources for cultural boundaries
- Inventory sources (scale, accuracy, currency, etc.)
- Determine typical uses and relevant applications for users
- Determine the best source for cultural boundaries regarding currency, spatial accuracy, coverage, etc. for the defined uses
- Determine approaches for compiling and maintaining cultural boundaries
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program plan for Ohio to allow for the compilation and ongoing maintenance and updating of a statewide cultural boundary layers (as identified through this Task Force) accessible to all levels of government.
Two issues that will be reviewed by the Working Groups in all themes are 1) Maintenance and Metadata. These two functions will provide for consistent access and availability, and ensure an understanding of the information to articulate usability to the end user.
The maintenance processes and a defined maintenance program for each theme is essential to the protection of a comprehensive investment in spatial data. This would include existing and future maintenance procedures to streamline and support vertical integration of these spatial data themes for all sectors of government, the private sector and academia.
To protect the integrity of spatial data and support the appropriate use of spatial data, the Working Groups will need to initiate mechanisms for the creation of searchable and understandable metadata. Metadata is "data about data" and represents data documentation regarding data sets and or specific digital data features. Metadata can communicate the use and limitations of spatial data and data sets internally, as well as externally. We must better understand spatial data and spatial data sets before applying these data sets in a responsible manner and using them to their fullest advantage.
There are general issues associated with metadata and a Task Force will be created to address these issues.
Objective: This Task Force will encourage metadata creation and provide guidance in metadata development consistent with past OGRIP initiatives.
Initial Efforts: This Task Force review:
- ODNR's Metadata Template
- Articulate the advantages and disadvantages of FGDC Metadata Standards compliance
- Identify and prioritize statewide data sets requiring metadata and the level of metadata needed
- Inventory metadata activities in local government
- Develop a guide or primer on the need for metadata
Long-term Efforts: The development of a program for increased education and awareness for the need for metadata and guidance concerning metadata development